This article focuses on the measures adopted by various governments to tackle the issue of fake news, across multiple jurisdictions. While understanding the steps taken by the different governments, it provides a timeline of the measures adopted in India to tackle this problem.
Ogilvy’s Global Media Influence Survey of 2018 has uncovered that journalists believe that the public’s trust in traditional media as a source for news has declined by 22% since 2016. The survey has also found that a majority of journalists (68%) believe that the responsibility to tackle the issue of fake news and echo chambers lies on both, the news industry and social media giants such as Facebook.
Meanwhile, various governments around the world have adopted a series of measures to arrest the spread of “fake news” and misinformation. This article takes a look at some of these steps. It is critical to note, however, that many of these measures are attempts by governments to regulate online content and social media platforms generally, and are not necessarily just focused on arresting the spread of misinformation. For India, specifically, this article also puts together a timeline of steps taken by the government of India to tackle this issue.
Timeline of Measures adopted in India
April 25, 2018: The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India posted a tender online for the creation of a ‘Social Media Communications Hub’ . As per this tender, the selected company would be required to monitor Twitter, YouTube, LinkedIn, internet forums and even e-mail in order to analyse sentiment, identify “fake news,” disseminate information on behalf of the government and inject news and social media posts with a “positive slant for India”.
June 15, 2018: In West Bengal, those found posting fake news and morphed photographs with the intent of causing fear or alarm among the public and those found committing offences against the state or against public tranquillity were booked under Section 505(1)(b) of the Indian Penal Code, 1860, as per a Home Department official. The West Bengal state government also began working on a new law to tackle the menace of fake news and posts on social media, a move which came against the backdrop of such posts stirring trouble and unrest in many parts of the country.
June 16, 2018: In an inter-ministerial meeting, chaired by Home Secretary Rajiv Gauba, the decision to call executives from social media platforms for a meeting with the Home Ministry was taken. The government was planning to get help from social media platforms, including WhatsApp and Facebook, to filter out fake text messages and videos.
July 3, 2018: The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (“MeitY”) accused WhatsApp of allowing circulation of irresponsible and explosive messages. The ministry issued a stern warning to the Facebook-owned messaging app to stop the spread of such messages by applying appropriate technology.
July 10, 2018: WhatsApp informed users through a blog post that it would add the “Forwarded” label on messages that were being mass-shared by the users. Further, it gave Whatsapp group administrators the control to decide whether all participants or only administrators could send messages on Whatsapp groups. The company also ran advertisements in leading newspapers that advised people on how to spot fake news and rumours.
July 14, 2018: The government of Maharashtra proposed to hire fact checking agencies to curb the spread of rumours and fake news on social media.
July 20, 2018: WhatsApp began to test a feature which allowed users to forward messages limited to only five chats at a time. The Uttar Pradesh police marshalled a digital army comprising of 250 volunteers from each of the 1,469 police stations across the state to counter the menace created by fake news.
July 24, 2018: Senior WhatsApp executives met the Information Technology (“IT”) Secretary and other Indian government officials to outline steps that the company had initiated to combat the circulation of fake messages on the platform. WhatsApp had launched safety features such as a label to identify forwarded messages and controls for group conversations.
August 3, 2018: The central government withdrew the proposal to create a ‘Social Media Communications Hub’, following mainstream media unrest and the filing of a plea before the Supreme Court by Trinamool Congress MLA Mahua Moitra.
August 21, 2018: The IT Minister urged Whatsapp to create a mechanism through which the source of fake news could be traced. He further asked Whatsapp to set up a local corporate entity, comply with Indian laws, start a public awareness campaign and appoint a grievance officer to address complaints.
August 25, 2018: The administration of Lalitpur district, Uttar Pradesh mandated the registration of WhatsApp groups operated by journalists with the state IT department. This registration requires the details of the administrators and members to be shared along with photographs of the group administrator and their WhatsApp number.
September 20, 2018: The Information and Broadcasting (“I&B”) Minister reiterated the need to have an independent association to check the spread of fake news. In lieu of this, 10 media companies came together to launch the Digital News Publishers Association (“DNPA”). This association is to have a code of conduct similar to the Press Council of India (“PCI”), News Broadcasters Association (“NBA”) and the News Broadcasting Standards Authority (“NBSA”), for online ecosystem.
October 10, 2018: With polls for the 2019 national elections approaching, the Election Commission, called for a law to deal with the problem of fake news in October 2018.
October 25, 2018: Union Home minister, Rajiv Gauba, undertook a meeting with representatives of social media platforms to review actions taken by them to prevent the misuse of their sites. He called upon them to nominate grievance redressal officers and develop a monitoring mechanism for time-bound preventive actions to remove objectionable contents.
October 26, 2018: MeitY reportedly drafted another letter to Whatsapp to come up with technical solutions to curb the spread of fake news.
November 12, 2018: The state government of Gujarat considered introducing a law to curb fake news in November 2018.
November 22, 2018: The Ministry for Home Affairs summoned the representatives of social media platforms to attend fortnightly meetings and appraise the ministry regarding the steps taken to curb fake news and spread of misinformation. 
December 4, 2018: A team of WhatsApp executives met with officials from MeitY to discuss technical issues on traceability.
December 24, 2018: A calling attention motion on the “Misuse of social media platforms and spreading of fake news” was admitted in the Parliament in the winter session of 2018. Following this, the MeitY released a set of draft amendments to the IT Act, requiring intermediaries to help trace the originator of fake news, when required to do so by authorised government agencies.
January 7, 2019: The I&B Minister called for self-regulation by social media platforms to deal with fake news.
Steps taken in Other Jurisdictions
The menace created by fake news has transcended boundaries. To curb these incidents, various governments have introduced measures to filter information and in some cases prevent dissent and insult of the ruling government. The table below examines the measures taken by governments around the world on the issue of misinformation and fake news and the reasons for adopting such measures:
|Country||Measures Taken||Reasons + Reception|
|European Union (“EU”)||Sir Julian King, the European Commissioner for Security, wants “a clear game plan” on how social media companies are allowed to operate during political campaigns to be ready for the 2019 European elections. In January 2018, the European Commission set up a high-level group of experts to advise on policy initiatives to counter fake news and misinformation spread online.
In December, 2018, The European Union proposed a plan where social media platforms would be required to file monthly reports on their efforts towards combating fake news. The Union has outlined an action plan to make efforts towards countering disinformation and put forward their self regulatory approach to tackle the menace. The European Commission has also proposed several other mechanisms as part of their action plan in countering and minimising disinformation. These mechanisms are rapid alert system, setting budgets, expert staff and data analysis tools.
|Julian King has voiced concerns that foreign influence will spread through social media and disrupt democratic processes, much like the Russian meddling in the 2016 United States presidential elections and the referendum on an EU Agreement with Ukraine by Russia, which lead to misinformation of policies and statements, thereby affecting the voter’s interest. 
|Malaysia||Malaysia passed the Anti-Fake News 2018 Bill in April 2018. Under this law, fake news is any “news, information, data and reports which is or are wholly or partly false,” as determined by Malaysian courts. Publishing of fake news has been made punishable with a fine of US $123,000. The new Malaysian law covers digital news outlets, including video and audio, and social media, and it applies to anyone who maliciously spreads fake news inside and outside the country, including foreigners, as long as Malaysia or its citizens are affected.
In September, 2013, the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (“MCMC”) network security said that it has the capacity to punish those who spread fake news. The MCMC added that the action will be taken within 24 hours, after the offence (falling under falls under Section 233 of the Communications and Multimedia Act, 1998) has been committed by any person on the social media. The MCMC will also be responsible for monitoring social media.
|The Barison Nasional (BN) Government Ministers have implied that the fake news law is clearly predicated on silencing any criticism of the BN coalition government. In particular, the 1MDB scandal, in which Prime Minister Najib Razak has been accused (domestically and internationally) of stealing billions of dollars from a state-investment fund, is relevant in this regard. Coming out in support of the Prime Minister, the Deputy Commissioner for Communications and Multimedia said that the fake news being circulated has a political agenda and is trying to damage the good name of the Prime Minister.|
|Germany||In October 2017, a law called Netzwerkdurchsetzungsgesetz (“NetzDG”), came into effect. The law gives social media networks 24 hours to delete or block obviously criminal content and seven (7) days to deal with less clear-cut cases, with an obligation to report back to the person who filed the complaint about how they handled the case. The failure to comply could see a company fined up to 50 million euros, and the company’s chief representative in Germany fined up to 5 million euros. However, for content to be removed in compliance to this Act, the content should be in violation to any of the 22 statues this Act refers to in itself.
In December, 2018, Germany warned it would take actions against the social bots that manipulate and spread fake news. Ahead of the 2019 national elections, Germany has expressed concerns over news spread by botnets which can be controlled by foreign governments.
|There are multiple cases of hate material being circulated online, and no action is being taken by popular social networks against such racist material and illegal material online.
Social media giants like the Google, Youtube, Twitter has complied with this law, as declared by them in their transparency reports..
|Italy||Italian lawmakers launched an experimental project in October 2017 to encourage media literacy – including how to recognise falsehoods and conspiracy theories online – which was made part of the country’s high-school education curriculum. In November 2017, Facebook rolled out a new fact-checking programme aimed at identifying and debunking false information that appears on the site for its Italian users.
In January, 2018, the government announced that it has set up an online portal, allowing citizens to report misinformation online. The complaint regarding misinformation spread through a certain source can be reported through a “red button” system on the Italy’s postal police website.
A landmark ruling in September, 2018 validated that the arrests may also take place if a person is found spreading misinformation. A term of imprisonment may also be awarded for the same, as was done in this landmark ruling.
At present, there is no specific law on fake news in Italy. However, Article No. 656 of the Italian Criminal Code punishes the publication and dissemination of false, exaggerated or biased news which may undermine public order.
|The members of the governing Democratic Party have focused their attention on the misinformation campaign for they believe that the misinformation is devised to damage one of the last major center–left governments standing in Europe.
|France||President Emmanuel Macron had stated there will be increased transparency requirements for internet platforms regarding sponsored content, with the aim of making public the identity of those who place the ads and also limiting the number of ads. In addition, when fake news is identified, an emergency procedure allows judges to delete some content, close a user’s account, or block access to a website.
In November, 2018, the French National Assembly has approved two laws to crack down on false information. As per these laws, judges have the power to order the removal of fake news online, and direct internet firms of a certain size to disclose the details about their advertisers.
|President Macron opines that fake news is a threat to liberal democracy. He aims to prevent the reoccurrence of the major data hack that took place during his election campaign in 2017. He also called for international cooperation on internet issues.
However, the conservative-leaning Senate fears that the new laws would curb freedom of speech and opposed the Bills. The Bills were passed nonetheless.
|Philippines||In June 2017, a draft law seeking to penalise those who spread fake news was introduced in the Philippines Senate, seeking stiffer penalties for erring government officials. This bill defines false news as information which “intends to cause panic, division, chaos, violence, and hate, or those which exhibit a propaganda to blacken or discredit one’s reputation.”  The violators will face a fine of up to ₱5 million ($96,050), and imprisonment of up to 5 years.
In September, 2017, spreading fake news in the Philippines was made a crime under the amending law to Republic Act 10951. Anybody proven to spread false news can now be locked up in jail for up to six months and fined up to 200,000 pesos. Philippines also awaits legislative status of Anti-Fake News Act of 2017 (Senate Bill 1492).
|President Roberto Duterte has called Rappler, a news website based in Philippines, a fake news outlet. He said that he had lost trust in the website, making no secret of his annoyance at its reporting, which has heavily scrutinised his policies and the accuracy of his statements.|
|Indonesia||Indonesia launched a new cyber security agency headed by Major General Djoko Setiadi, former chairman of the country’s encryption agency.
In September, 2018, Indonesia’s communications ministry had announced plans to begin holding weekly briefings on fake news, in an effort to educate the public about the spread of disinformation. A specialised team of 70 people have been tasked with identifying fake news.
|Indonesia’s problem with internet hoaxes and misinformation campaigns reached fever pitch in the lead up to elections in Jakarta in late 2016 and early 2017, with incumbent governor Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, nicknamed Ahok, bearing the brunt of it. Conservative groups such as the Muslim Cyber Army have exploited social media to spread lies and stoke religious extremism.
|Singapore||A government survey reportedly showed that 91 percent of Singaporeans are supportive of stronger laws to “ensure the removal and correction of fake news”. Singapore’s law minister K Shanmugam said that new laws to tackle the scourge of fake news are expected to be introduced in 2018. 
In October, 2018, the government proposed stringent regulation to combat fake news and advertising on social media and internet. The new law would bring in greater transparency and accountability in the flow of content. 
“The committee in Singapore said the objectives are to increase the visibility of corrections, limit or block exposure and disrupt the digital amplification of online falsehoods, including through the use of inauthentic accounts and digital advertising tools.”
|There have been multiple issues on the basis of racial and religious sentiments. For example, a video of Muslims celebrating a Pakistani cricket match victory was put up online, and it was misconstrued as a celebration of the 2015 terror attacks in Paris. It was viewed 500,000 times in two hours.
|Cambodia||The Ministry of Information of Cambodia held a closed-door session on 6th March 2018 to discuss ways of curbing fake news, which the government contends is spread by supporters of the Cambodia National Rescue Party, the only viable opposition party that was dissolved in November, 2017.
In July, 2018, the government of Cambodia announced a new directive aimed at combating “fake news”. This directive, among other restrictions, requires all websites to register with Cambodian Ministry of Information or else face additional scrutiny.
Earlier in the year, the government announced that it would block sites which could pose a threat to national defence and security.
|Measures have been taken to regulate the flow of online information as part of a wider campaign to supress dissent for the upcoming polls.|
|Vietnam||Vietnam has a 10,000-strong cyber-crime team, dubbed Force 47, that monitors “wrong” views expressed online. The Ministry of Public Security, in June 2017, drafted a new cybersecurity law, which requires all foreign online service providers such as Facebook and Google to store user data in Vietnam-based centers, which potentially puts social media users’ data in the hands of the Communist apparatchiks that have shown few signs of easing up on their restrictions on freedoms.
Facebook has committed to work with the Vietnamese government to build an informed online community in order to help lift news literacy and create safe environment for small businesses and developers to grow. It has pledged to remove fake accounts, curb fake news and review content that is against the company’s policy.
In October, 2018, the Vietnamese government approved a cybersecurity law overriding strong objections from companies like Facebook and Alphabet Inc’s Google, rights groups and countries including the United States.
|Any content that is deemed detrimental to Vietnamese leaders’ reputation and the survival of the regime has been the focus for the regulation of information.
|Thailand||Thailand has enacted a cyber-security law under which the spread of false information carries a jail sentence of up to seven years, and the military government strictly enforces lese majeste laws (an offence against the dignity of the royal family from insult). The Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, has also launched a Media Watch App, to allow public to report any fake news or complaints about misleading information they come across on the internet. 
In June, 2018, the Thai authorities issued a warning about taking steps to come down heavily on fake and distorted news commentary stories being propagated online ahead of the upcoming 2019 general elections.
|The concern regarding the presence of fake news was heightened after a message on Facebook regarding corruption in the government’s satellite project.|
[This post has been authored by Varun Jami, a final year law student of Jindal Global Law School, O.P. Jindal Global University, with inputs from Nehaa Chaudhari, Policy Lead and Tuhina Joshi, Associate, Ikigai Law.]
 (2018, June 18). Global Media Influence Survey 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://www.ogilvy.it/news/ogilvy_global_media_influence_survey_2018.html.
 McCarthy, J. (2018, June 18). Journalists believe the public trusts traditional media 22% less than in 2016. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from http://www.thedrum.com/news/2018/06/18/journalists-believe-the-public-trusts-traditional-media-22-less-2016
 Marlow, I. (2018, May 29). India to Intensify Scrutiny of Citizens’ Social Media, Emails. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-05-29/india-wants-a-new-media-command-room-to-help-boost-nationalism
 West Bengal plans new law to tackle fake news on social media. (2018, June 15). Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/west-bengal-plans-new-law-to-tackle-fake-news-on-social-media/articleshow/64598026.cms
 Dandotia, A. (2018, July 04). Government to take steps to check Fake News on Social Media. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://www.techatma.in/2018/07/government-india-to-check-social-media-fake-news.html
 Agarwal, M. (2018, July 04). Centre Warns WhatsApp, Asks It To Stop Circulation Of ‘Irresponsible, Explosive Messages’. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://inc42.com/buzz/indian-govt-warns-whatsapp-to-stop-the-circulation-of-irresponsible-and-explosive-messages/
 Talwar, S. (2018, July 20). Too little, too late: Why WhatsApp’s new anti fake news measures make little difference. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://www.dailyo.in/technology/fake-news-whatsapp-lok-sabha-polls-2019-narendra-modi-lynchings/story/1/25582.html
 Rahman, S. A. (2018, July 13). ‘Fake news often goes viral’: WhatsApp ads warn India after mob lynchings. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jul/13/fake-news-whatsapp-ads-india-mob-lynchings
 (2018, July 14). Maharashtra to focus on exposing fake news. Retrieved January 7, 2018, from https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/maharashtra-to-focus-on-exposing-fake-news/article24421836.ece.
 Gupta, K. (2018, August 08). WhatsApp expanding user education campaign to spot fake news. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://www.livemint.com/Companies/DR885IF6lqfBBGkoarHqBI/WhatsApp-expanding-user-education-campaign-to-spot-fake-news.html
 Singh, R. K. (2018, July 20). A ‘digital army’ of over 367,000 volunteers to take on fake news in Uttar Pradesh. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/a-digital-army-of-over-367-000-volunteers-to-take-on-fake-news-in-uttar-pradesh/story-RQgjdOcVRaAYGbWhLQabWI.html
 Mob lynching: WhatsApp COO apprises govt of steps taken to curb fake news – Times of India. (2018, July 24). Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/mob-lynching-whatsapp-coo-apprises-govt-of-steps-taken-to-curb-fake-news/articleshow/65122811.cms.
 Saxena, N. (2018, August 03). Social Media Communications Hub proposal withdrawn: Centre Tells SC. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://www.exchange4media.com/digital/social-media-communications-hub-proposal-withdrawn-centre-tells-sc_91437.html.
 Gupta, K. (2018, August 22). India asks WhatsApp to set up local unit, curb fake news. Retrieved January 13, 2019, from https://www.livemint.com/Politics/HpmAjYPgcwpL28VlXGG2lO/India-asks-WhatsApp-to-set-up-local-entity.html.
 Ghosh, A. (2018, August 31). In UP district, register with government to run a WhatsApp group – Times of India. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/agra/in-up-district-register-with-government-to-run-a-whatsapp-group/articleshow/65616666.cms
 Yoy, D. (2018, October 10). As Polls Approach, Election Commission Calls for Law to Tackle Fake News. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://www.news18.com/news/india/as-polls-approach-election-commission-calls-for-law-to-tackle-fake-news-1904189.html.
 (2018, October 25). Union Home Secretary chairs review meeting with representatives of social media platforms: Discussions held to prevent misuse of social media sites by undesirable elements. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=184372.
 Ganguly, S. (2018, October 26). Indian Govt Directs Social Media Companies To Monitor Rumours, Fake News. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://inc42.com/buzz/indian-govt-directs-social-media-companies-to-monitor-rumours-fake-news/
 (2018, November 12). Gujarat mulling law to curb fake news on social media, says deputy CM Nitin Patel. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/ahmedabad/gujarat-fake-news-law-nitin-patel-5443166/
 Singh, M. (2018, November 22). Home Ministry asks social media giants to attend fortnightly meetings on fake news. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://www.indiatoday.in/mail-today/story/home-ministry-fake-news-meeting-whatsapp-twitter-facebook-google-1393676-2018-11-22
 Comments / suggestions invited on Draft of “The Information Technology [Intermediary Guidelines (Amendment) Rules] 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from http://meity.gov.in/comments-invited-draft-intermediary-rules
 (2019, January 2). Govt planning to amend IT Act to crack down on apps, sites unable to curb fake news. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://www.businesstoday.in/top-story/govt-planning-to-amend-it-act-to-crack-down-on-apps-sites-unable-to-curb-fake-news/story/306041.html
 (2019, January 7). Rathore urges youth to fight menace of fake news. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from http://www.newsonair.com/Main-News-Details.aspx?id=357648
 Gonzalez, J. C. (2018, August 01). EU Commission warns of ‘fake news,’ meddling in 2019 European elections | DW | 01.08.2018. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://www.dw.com/en/eu-commission-warns-of-fake-news-meddling-in-2019-european-elections/a-44903487
 Final report of the High Level Expert Group on Fake News and Online Disinformation. (2018, March 12). Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/final-report-high-level-expert-group-fake-news-and-online-disinformation
 (2018, December 11). Fake news and online disinformation. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/fake-news-disinformation
 (2018, December 6). European Union steps up fight against ‘Fake News’ ahead of elections. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/international/world-news/european-union-steps-up-fight-against-fake-news-ahead-of-elections/articleshow/66960532.cms
 Supra Note 26.
 Higgins, A. (2017, February 16). Fake News, Fake Ukrainians: How a Group of Russians Tilted a Dutch Vote. Retrieved September 28, 2018, from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/16/world/europe/russia-ukraine-fake-news-dutch-vote.html
 Gross, G. (2018, April 04). Countries Consider Penalties for Spreading ‘Fake News’. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://www.internetsociety.org/blog/2018/04/countries-consider-penalties-spreading-fake-news/
 MY government’s crackdown on fake news: A much needed initiative. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://www.marketing-interactive.com/my-governments-crackdown-on-fake-news-a-much-needed-initiative/
 Hutt, D. (2018, April 05). The Real Problem with Malaysia’s Fake News Law. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://thediplomat.com/2018/04/the-real-problem-with-malaysias-fake-news-law/
 Fighting fake news: India joins series of nations issuing directives against sowing of disinformation in media. (2018, April 03). Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://www.firstpost.com/world/fighting-fake-news-india-joins-series-of-nations-issuing-directives-against-sowing-of-disinformation-in-media-4416055.html
 (2018, December 17). Merkel’s whip urges action to rein in ‘fake news’ bots on social media sites. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://www.thelocal.de/20181217/merkels-whip-urges-steps-to-rein-in-social-bots.
 Germany starts enforcing hate speech law; violating social networks could face fines up to €50 million- Technology News, Firstpost. (2018, January 02). Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://www.firstpost.com/tech/news-analysis/germany-starts-enforcing-hate-speech-law-violating-social-networks-could-face-fines-up-to-e50-million-4283391.html
 (2018). Removals under the Network Enforcement Law. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://transparencyreport.google.com/netzdg/overview; Network Enforcement Act, Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://transparency.twitter.com/en/countries/de.html; (2018). Removals under the Network Enforcement Law. Retrieved January 14, 2019, (2018). Network Enforcement Act, Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://transparencyreport.google.com/netzdg/overview?hl=en.
 Serhan, Y. (2018, February 26). Italy Scrambles to Fight Misinformation Ahead of Its Elections. Retrieved September 27, 2018, from https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2018/02/europe-fake-news/551972/
 Supra Note 37.
 Funke, D. (2019, January 8). A guide to anti-misinformation actions around the world. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://www.poynter.org/fact-checking/2018/a-guide-to-anti-misinformation-actions-around-the-world/.
 (2018, May 22). Tackling fake news, the Italian way. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://www.rcmediafreedom.eu/Tools/Legal-Resources/Tackling-fake-news-the-Italian-way.
 Horowitz, J. (2017, November 24). Italy, Bracing for Electoral Season of Fake News, Demands Facebook’s Help. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/24/world/europe/italy-election-fake-news.html
 Macron plans law to fight ‘fake news’ in 2018. (2018, January 04). Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-france-macron/macron-plans-law-to-fight-fake-news-in-2018-idUSKBN1ES1LJ
 (2018, November 21). French passes law to crack down on ‘fake news’ during elections. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://www.gulf-times.com/story/613705/France-passes-laws-to-crack-down-on-fake-news-duri
 McKarthy, C. (2018, November 12). French president Macron insists new regulations needed to protect us all from Facebook’s claws. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://www.theregister.co.uk/2018/11/12/macron_internet_regulation/.
 (2018, November 21). French passes law to crack down on ‘fake news’ during elections. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://www.gulf-times.com/story/613705/France-passes-laws-to-crack-down-on-fake-news-duri
 Supra Note 37.
 Lifang, S. (2017, January 9). Philippine president approves law penalizing fake news peddlers. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from http://www.xinhuanet.com//english/2017-09/01/c_136574561.htm; Tan, L. (2017, September 1). You may be fined up to ₱200,000 for publishing false news. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from, http://cnnphilippines.com/news/2017/09/01/False-news-jail-fine-Republic-Act-10951-Revised-Penal-Code.html.
 Senate of Phillippines. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://www.senate.gov.ph/lis/bill_res.aspx?congress=17&q=SBN-1492.
 Philippine President Duterte bans news site Rappler from covering his events over ‘fake news’. (2018, February 21). Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/philippine-president-duterte-bans-news-site-rappler-from-covering-his-events-over-fake
 Indonesia acts to tackle fake news, extremism. (2018, January 03). Retrieved September 27, 2018, from https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/indonesia-acts-to-tackle-fake-news-extremism
 Lamb, K. (2018, September 27). Indonesian government to hold weekly ‘fake news’ briefings. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/sep/27/indonesian-government-to-hold-weekly-fake-news-briefings
 Pearl, H. (2018, March 15). Indonesia battles fake news as elections loom. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2018/03/15/indonesia-battles-fake-news-as-elections-loom.html
 NG, K. (2017, June 19). Laws tackling fake news to be introduced next year: Shanmugam. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://www.todayonline.com/singapore/new-laws-tackle-fake-news-be-introduced-next-year-shanmugam
 Mandavia, M. (2018, October 4). fake news, Singapore law may spur conversation in India. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/policy/on-fake-news-india-may-follow-singapore-model/articleshow/66062604.cms
 Supra Note 61.
 Supra Note 35. See also: Chen, D. (2018, March 07). Ministry targets ‘fake news’. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://www.phnompenhpost.com/national/ministry-targets-fake-news
 (2018, July 12). Cambodia curbs free speech in the name of “fake news”. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://www.accessnow.org/cambodia-curbs-free-speech-in-the-name-of-fake-news/
 Parameswaran, P. (2018, July 10). What’s Behind Cambodia’s War on Fake News? Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://thediplomat.com/2018/07/whats-behind-cambodias-war-on-fake-news/
 (2017, April 27). Facebook to work with government to ensure security. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://vietnamnews.vn/society/375478/facebook-to-work-with-government-to-ensure-security.html#JwDuBWBhr38qtKfv.97
 Nguyen, M. (2018, October 31). Vietnam cyber law will guard against fake news, terrorism – security ministry. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-vietnam-socialmedia/vietnam-cyber-law-will-guard-against-fake-news-terrorism-security-ministry-idUKKCN1N512C
 Luong, D. (2018, February 19). Vietnam’s Internet is in trouble. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/theworldpost/wp/2018/02/19/vietnam-internet/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.601801cf7c66
 Supra Note 35.
 Lim, S. (2017, December 01). Thailand launches ‘Media Watch’ app to combat fake news. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://www.thedrum.com/news/2017/12/01/thailand-launches-media-watch-app-combat-fake-news
 Morris, J. (2018, June 21). Thai Government warns about fake news online as political discourse picks up before elections. Retrieved January 14, 2019, from https://www.thaiexaminer.com/thai-news-foreigners/2018/06/21/thailand-speech-online-news-commentary-fake-news-thai-government/.
 Morrissey, G. (2018, June 14). Thailand steps up crackdown on fake news. Retrieved September 23, 2018, from https://www.scmp.com/news/asia/southeast-asia/article/2150811/thai-government-steps-efforts-crack-down-fake-news